Australia is the only country in the world that occupies an entire continent. It’s a remarkable world unlike anything you’ve seen before. There are seas and coral reefs, mountains and vast deserts, full-flowing rivers and dense forests. Here you’ll encounter animals and plants that exist nowhere else. People here are unlike any other, yet they are all very open, friendly, and independent. Welcome to Australia, a country eagerly awaiting your arrival! Let’s dive into the fascinating world of Australia together to learn all about its geography, cultural peculiarities, dangers, festivals, attractions, and the cost of travel.

Australia on the World Map

Geography and Nature of Australia

Australia is situated on the continent which bears its name – Australia. It’s the smallest continent on the planet, yet its area exceeds 7.6 million square kilometers, making it the sixth largest country in the world. Australia lies entirely in the Southern Hemisphere, almost on the opposite side of the globe from Europe.

To the west, it is bordered by the Indian Ocean, and to the east, by the Pacific Ocean. The boundary between the oceans runs through the Torres Strait and between the island of Tasmania and Antarctica. The total length of the country’s coastline is 59,000 kilometers. Thousands of large and small islands surround the continent, and to the east stretches the Great Barrier Reef – one of nature’s wonders.

Australia has no land borders with other countries. The largest Australian island, Tasmania, is located in the southeast of the continent, covering an area of ​​68,000 square kilometers.

Kakadu National Park

The relief of Australia is predominantly flat. The majority of its territory is covered by plains and deserts. Major mountains are located in the eastern part of the continent and are known as the Great Dividing Range. It is home to the highest point on the entire continent – Mount Kosciuszko (2228 meters).

Australia has very few rivers, with most of them concentrated in the southeastern part of the country. The largest rivers in the country, the Murray and the Darling, flow there. Rivers in the deserts appear only after rain and quickly dry up. Similarly, numerous lakes, mostly covered with a salt crust, exist for only a portion of the year. Lake Eyre is the largest lake in the country.

Photo of a koala in the Featherdale Wildlife Park

The natural world of Australia is unique. It has evolved separately from other continents for a long time. As a result, species that have long disappeared elsewhere have been preserved here. Only in Australia can you see the diversity of marsupials, including the country’s symbol – the kangaroo.

Forests cover only 18% of the country’s territory, but eucalyptus trees thrive here.

Australia Summary: What’s Important to Know

If you’re planning to visit this country, here are some of the most important things to know:


The official language in the country is English. However, Australian English differs significantly from that spoken in the United Kingdom and even in the United States. Australian English is the sole language for 80% of the population of the republic. Another approximately 20% speak two languages fluently. Australian Aboriginal people speak their own languages, numbering around 70.


Currently, slightly over 25 million people live in the country, the majority of whom reside in cities (89%). Almost all Australians are descendants of immigrants, the majority of whom arrived from the United Kingdom and other European countries. In recent years, there has been an increased flow of immigrants from Asian and African countries.

There are currently just over 500,000 Australian Aboriginal people, the indigenous population of the continent.

  • More interesting facts about Australians, their character, and local color can be found in this article.


Australia is considered a secular state and has no official religion. The majority of the population traditionally adhere to Christianity. Approximately 25% of the population are Catholics, and 18% are Protestants.

To a lesser extent, representatives of other world religions are present here: Buddhism (2%), Islam (1.7%), Hinduism (0.7%), and Judaism (0.4%). About 20% of the population consider themselves agnostic.


Australia’s climate is heavily influenced by its geographical location and terrain. Along the eastern coast, warm currents from the Pacific Ocean bring precipitation and moist air. However, the Great Dividing Range mountains hinder the spread of precipitation into the country’s interior, resulting in a dry climate there.

To the west, Australia is washed by the cold currents of the Indian Ocean, which also contribute to reduced rainfall in the region. The majority of the continent lies within the tropical climate zone, with a humid climate in the east and a dry climate in the west and central regions. In the far north, there is a small zone of the equatorial belt, with abundant rainfall and high air temperatures. The southwestern climate is Mediterranean, subtropical. Tasmania is located in the temperate climate zone.

The bulk of the country’s rainfall occurs during the local summer, which in the Southern Hemisphere is from December to February. In the north, rainfall reaches 1500 millimeters, in the center – less than 500, in the southwest – 1000, along the eastern coast – 2000 millimeters. Summer temperatures hover around +25 degrees Celsius, but in the deserts, it can get much hotter, reaching up to +50 degrees Celsius. The coldest winters are observed in Tasmania, where temperatures can drop to +8 degrees Celsius, and in the southeastern continental part of the country, where winter temperatures reach +10 degrees Celsius.

The best time to visit the country is during the local summer: December, January, and February. However, many prefer to travel to Australia in spring or autumn. During the shoulder seasons, there are fewer tourists, and the temperature conditions are suitable for both beach vacations and sightseeing.

Water Temperature in the Tasman and Coral Seas

Australia’s most popular beach resorts are located on its eastern coast, which is washed by the waters of the Tasman Sea to the south and the Coral Sea to the north. The temperature regimes of these seas differ. In the north, you can swim and dive among the coral reefs almost all year round. In the south, the water is too cool for comfortable leisure activities during the winter months.

  • Water temperature in winter, December-January: +29 degrees Celsius in the north, +24 in the south.
  • Water temperature in spring, March-May: +25 degrees Celsius in the north, +20 in the south, and around Melbourne it drops to +15 degrees Celsius.
  • Water temperature in summer, June-August: from +23 in the north to +17 degrees Celsius in the south and +11 in Melbourne.
  • Water temperature in autumn, September-November: +26 degrees Celsius in the north and +20 degrees Celsius in the south.


The national currency is the Australian dollar, which is formally divided into 100 cents. In addition to Australia, it is the official currency of the island nations of Nauru, Tuvalu, and Kiribati. Currently, banknotes of 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 dollars are in circulation, as well as coins of 5, 10, 20, 50 cents, and 1, 2 dollars.

Australia is a highly industrialized and economically developed country, one of the leaders of the global economy. Cash is rarely used here; cards are accepted almost everywhere. It’s advisable to carry a small amount of Australian dollars or euros, especially since they can easily be exchanged for the local currency at the airport or a bank. For reference, the approximate exchange rate is 1 US dollar to 1.5 Australian dollars.

Political Structure

Australia is a parliamentary federal monarchy. Formally, the head of state remains the British monarch, but in practice, power in the country is concentrated in the hands of the Prime Minister and the government. The legislative authority is represented by a bicameral parliament consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives.

Administratively, the country is divided into 6 states and 3 mainland territories.

The capital of the country is Canberra.

Symbols of Australia

Kangaroo – the animal that first comes to mind when talking about Australia. It is a national symbol that even appears on the country’s coat of arms.

Koala – an amazing plush animal, whose name translates as «does not drink.» Many believe that koalas never come down from eucalyptus trees.

Emu – the famous Australian ostrich, which also appears on the national coat of arms.

Opal – the most popular precious stone in the country, a symbol of its jewelry industry.

Ugg boots – sheepskin boots, once ordinary footwear for local farmers, now a fashionable trend.

Major Cities and Resorts

Sydney – the largest and most populous city in the country, with a population of 5.5 million people. Founded in 1788, it is considered the oldest city in the country. Known for its Opera House, aquarium, Harbor Bridge, and numerous museums.

Melbourne – the second most populous city in the country, with a population of 5.2 million people. Known as the most romantic and sporty city in Australia, it has hosted the Olympic Games and hosts the annual Australian Open tennis tournament.

Adelaide – the fifth most populous city in the country, with a population of 1.2 million people. Known for its botanical garden, numerous museums, and St. Peter’s Cathedral. The famous Kangaroo Island is located near the city. It is the center of local wine production.

Gold Coast – a city in the southeast of Queensland, the center of water tourism. It has a population of just over 600,000 residents. Popular for its beautiful beaches and proximity to the Great Barrier Reef, it is considered the capital of Australian surfers.

Natural Disasters

Devastation after Cyclone in Australia - News


Australia is located on a stable continental plate, so earthquakes are very rare here. In recent history, only one major earthquake has been recorded, which occurred in 1989 in the city of Newcastle in the southwest of the country. Its magnitude reached 5.6, and the death toll was 13 people. There are no volcanoes in the country.

The main disasters in Australia are cyclones, floods, and heatwaves. Cyclones regularly hit the northern states, bringing sharp increases in wind and heavy rainfall. They sometimes lead to serious destruction, as was the case in 2021 when 70% of homes in the towns of Northampton and Kalbarri in Western Australia were destroyed.

Floods are associated with heavy rainfall brought by the warm currents of the Pacific Ocean. For example, in 2022, severe flooding paralyzed almost the entire east coast of the country, causing significant damage and resulting in the deaths of 28 people. Most floods occur from March to July.

Heatwaves sweep across the country in the winter months when temperatures rise to 40-50 degrees Celsius and remain at such levels for extended periods. Heatwaves cause numerous cases of heatstroke and heart attacks, as well as leading to bushfires – another significant natural disaster in the region. Bushfires most often affect areas in southeastern Australia and Tasmania, where the main forest reserves are located. Fires are not always brought under control, and when they are not, entire villages burn down, and people perish.

Among other natural disasters, landslides occurring in mountainous areas after heavy rains, tornadoes, and hailstorms are noteworthy. But these catastrophes are relatively rare.

  • You can read about the most devastating disasters in the history of Australia in this article.

How to Get to Australia

European or American tourists can only reach the country by plane. There are 5 major international airports in the country, which provide connectivity between the continent and the rest of the world.

The largest airport in the country is located in Sydney and is named Kingsford Smith. It serves more than 10 million passengers per year. Direct flights to Sydney are operated by airlines from Asian countries, the USA, and New Zealand.

The second busiest airport in the country is located in Melbourne and is called Tullamarine. It serves about 7 million passengers per year, although in the past this figure reached 30 million. There is a direct flight from Luxembourg to Melbourne.

Other major airports are located in Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide.

Best Things to Do in Australia

The tourism industry in Australia has long been one of the most important for the country’s economy. People come here for the wild nature and unusual landscapes, beautiful beaches and coral reefs, and cultural and sporting events. Below are the 10 most attractive entertainments that make a trip to Australia worthwhile.

1. Beach Holiday: Most tourists come to the country to relax on beautiful beaches, swim in the warm sea, and admire the beauty of the landscape. The most popular beaches in the country are located on its east coast, particularly near Sydney and the Gold Coast in the northeast. Here is the famous Surfers Paradise beach, considered the best in Australia.

2. Diving: Undoubtedly, the most popular water entertainment in the country is diving. Along the entire coast stretches the huge Great Barrier Reef, created by the efforts of millions of corals. Here you can admire the life of marine inhabitants – exotic fish, jellyfish, octopuses, and mollusks. The cost of diving is quite high, starting from $100 for a dive with an instructor in the open sea.

3. Sea Cruise: Sea cruises along the Great Barrier Reef are also very popular among tourists. There is a wide range of options, from one-day to multi-day cruises, but each includes not only comfortable sailing but also diving or snorkeling. Many ships are equipped with underwater viewing windows, allowing you to observe underwater life. Prices vary from $100 to $1000, depending on the duration.

4. Swimming with Sharks: For adrenaline junkies, this exotic adventure is sure to be enjoyable. Swimming with sharks is often included in the entertainment program of a regular sea cruise, but there are also special excursions. For example, in Adelaide, you can take a one-day cruise to see great white sharks, with immersion in a metal cage. The cost of such an experience is $250.

5. Koalas: One of the most attractive and cute animals in the country is the koala, also known as the eucalyptus bear. These animals are found only in Australia and feed on eucalyptus leaves. You can observe their life and even hold them in your arms by visiting the Featherdale Wildlife Park in Sydney.

6. Kangaroos: You can’t visit this country and not meet kangaroos. These cute marsupials are found everywhere, but of course, it’s better to observe them in a place specially designated for this. One such place is Kangaroo Island near the city of Adelaide. Approximately one-third of the island is occupied by a national park, where kangaroos live in their natural habitat and easily interact with tourists.

Kangaroos in Adelaide, Australia

7. Trekking in Tasmania: An equally interesting excursion can be a trip to the island of Tasmania. Here, there are fascinating tourist routes for every taste, such as the Overland Track. This popular tourist trail allows you to climb Cradle Mountain, visit lakes, and waterfalls. The full route along the trail is designed for 5-6 days. Trekking through the lavender fields of Tasmania also seems interesting.

8. Murray River Cruise: Traveling on old paddle steamers along the largest river on the continent is designed for different durations and allows you to get acquainted with the nature of southeastern Australia. You will have the opportunity to see picturesque gorges, and eucalyptus forests, and visit patriarchal towns preserving the aroma of the past. A one-day cruise costs $120.

9. Kakadu National Park: This is one of the most beautiful and untouched national parks in the country, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is located just south of Darwin and covers an area of ​​19,000 square kilometers. Here you can admire colorful rocks, animals, and plants. There are also beautiful examples of Aboriginal rock art.

Cockatoo Island 10. Blue Mountains: Another national park located in the south of the country, near Sydney. Here are amazingly beautiful rocks and waterfalls. In general, there are many wonderful mountains in Australia, such as Wave Rock near Perth and the red mountain Uluru in central Australia. However, in terms of accessibility, they are far behind the Blue Mountains of Sydney.

Holidays in Australia

Australians are cheerful and lively people who simply cannot imagine their lives without holidays. At the national level, there are 13 established holidays, but besides them, there are also commemorative dates established in each of the states. Conventionally, holidays can be divided into secular and religious ones.

Among secular holidays are Australia Day, ANZAC Day, Reconciliation Day, and Labour Day. Among religious holidays are Christmas and Easter.

In addition to national holidays, the country hosts numerous interesting festivals and events that attract tourists from all over the world. Among them, the most popular are the Mardi Gras carnival, light festivals in Alice Springs and Sydney, Kangaroo Day, Watermelon Festival, and many others.

The country also attracts tourists with famous sports competitions such as the Australian Open Tennis Championship, the Royal Regatta, and the final of the country’s football cup.

Travel Safety Tips

In the Global Peace Index, which takes into account the tranquility of the environment, attitudes towards tourists, and many other factors, Australia ranks 3rd, surpassed only by Iceland and New Zealand. This is an excellent result, allowing the country to be called one of the safest places for vacation. Australians are friendly and hospitable people, and the crime rate here does not differ from the situation in EU countries. In other words, crimes against tourists are practically nonexistent, and there are no pickpockets here.

Road traffic is well organized, drivers are disciplined, and they follow the rules. The epidemiological situation is favorable, and sanitary-hygienic conditions are at a high level. The water here can be drunk without fear for life, as well as dining in fast-food establishments.

Almost all hazards in Australia are related to its nature. While we’ll talk about natural disasters below, let’s discuss the animal world right now. The mainland waters are abundant with dangerous fauna. Predatory sharks, including white, tiger, and hammerhead sharks, swim here. In coastal waters, there are poisonous stingrays and stonefish, and sea snakes whose bite can be deadly. There are also many jellyfish on the beaches.

On land, tourists are also confronted with numerous representatives of aggressive fauna. Primarily, these are snakes, most of which are found in desert areas. Crocodiles abound in the rivers and swamps of the southeast, some reaching lengths of 6 meters. Poisonous spiders are also encountered. Even seemingly harmless animals such as kangaroos or the flightless bird cassowary can pose a danger.

Let’s not forget about the tropical climate. During the high tourist season in Australia, it can get quite hot, and staying on the beach or in the open air can easily result in heatstroke. Overall, it’s a relatively safe country, where a vacation will be unforgettable if you remember basic personal safety rules.

Australia Travel Cost

The cost of vacationing in Australia can vary widely depending on whether you plan to travel independently or use the services of a tour company and verified guides. Australia is located in the Southern Hemisphere, almost on the other side of the planet from both Europe and the USA. Therefore, flights here for tourists from the EU can be both long and expensive. For example, a round-trip ticket to Melbourne from Paris starts from around 800 euros in the lowest price segment. The cheapest tours to the country start from $700 to $1500 for 7 days excluding flights. However, overall, Australia is considered quite an expensive country.

Within the country, tourists can expect the following expenses:

1. Food: Prices for groceries are not much lower than in Europe. For example, lunch at an inexpensive restaurant will cost between $50-100 for two people excluding alcohol. A fast food meal will cost around $10. A cappuccino costs $3.5, and a cheeseburger costs $3.

2. Accommodation: The average price for a double room in a three-star hotel is $130. A hostel can be rented for $25. The most comfortable five-star hotels offer rooms starting from $300.

3. Sightseeing: Most beaches in the country are free, although additional services may incur charges. Visiting museums, exhibitions, and sporting events is paid, ranging from $17 at the Maritime Museum to $25 at Madame Tussauds Museum in Sydney. Prices for tours can vary greatly. For example, a one-day tour of Canberra will cost $120, and a tour of the Blue Mountains starts from $75.

4. Souvenirs: Tourists bring back clothing of local production, famous ugg boots (starting from $75), leather and wool products, eucalyptus oil, emu oil, boomerangs (starting from $5), and inverted world maps. Popular food items include macadamia nuts, Tim-Tam cookies, Vegemite yeast extract spread, Australian wine, and rum. The cost of souvenirs is individual and can vary significantly.

5. Transport: Getting around cities is easiest by bus. A bus ticket costs between $2 and $5. The cost of boarding a taxi is around $3, with an additional average of $1.7 per kilometer.

Thus, considering a reserve amount for unforeseen expenses, a vacation for two in Australia will cost between $2000 to $4500 for 7 days including flights. And of course, the maximum cost of a vacation can be much higher.

Australia Holiday Reviews

If you have already visited Australia, please share your impressions in the comments. Please write a few words about what you liked the most, what moments stayed in your memory forever, and what you would advise other tourists. We would be very grateful for your recommendations!

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