Ethiopia, situated in the northeast of Africa, stands as a quintessential representation of the region, adorned with captivating natural wonders, historical landmarks, and rich cultural traditions. It holds the distinction of being home to the world’s oldest Orthodox churches, creating a unique tapestry of heritage.

Embark on a journey to Ethiopia, a nation where life unfolds with a distinct rhythm, shaped by warm, open-hearted, and independent individuals. The country eagerly extends a warm welcome, inviting you to explore its diverse landscapes and vibrant culture.

Discovering Ethiopia on the Map

Ethiopia on the map

Geographical Insights

Nestled in the northeast corner of the African continent, the Republic of Ethiopia stands as a remarkable and exceptional nation.

Notably, Ethiopia is a landlocked country, devoid of coastlines, beaches, or ports. This change transpired relatively recently in 1993 when Eritrea, a former province of Ethiopia, gained independence, resulting in the loss of access to the Red Sea for the republic.

Ethiopia claims the title of the most populous landlocked country globally, sharing its borders with Eritrea, Somalia, Kenya, Djibouti, Sudan, and South Sudan.

Renowned for its mountainous terrain, Ethiopia boasts the highest mountains on the African continent. Although not towering as Kilimanjaro in Tanzania, Ethiopia is predominantly covered by mountains, with Mount Ras Dashen (4620 meters) reigning as its highest peak in the Ethiopian Highlands.

Paradoxically, Ethiopia is also one of the lowest countries in Africa, featuring the Afar Depression—an arid desert with scorching temperatures that plunges to a depth of 157 meters below sea level. This region holds the record for both the highest temperature and the least rainfall on the continent.

Rivers and lakes adorn Ethiopia’s landscape, including the Blue Nile, locally known as the Abbai, which originates from the largest Ethiopian lake, Lake Tana. The country’s fauna is a blend of typical African species, including elephants, lions, and crocodiles, while the savannahs host lively herds of antelopes and ostriches. Ethiopia’s flora is equally captivating, featuring unique varieties of wheat and various other distinctive plants.

Safety for Tourists

In the global peace index, which gauges overall tranquility, attitudes toward tourists, and various other factors, Ethiopia currently ranks 139th, alongside Mexico and Palestine. This less-than-ideal position for a fundamentally peaceful country is mainly attributed to internal interethnic conflicts, with major clashes occurring most recently at the end of 2020. It’s essential to note that such conflicts are localized, primarily in the east. By avoiding these areas, Ethiopia generally presents itself as a peaceful destination.

Similar to many parts of the world, pickpocketing is a concern, particularly in the capital, Addis Ababa. However, serious crimes against tourists are infrequent. Unfortunately, there have been instances of terrorist organizations kidnapping tourists for ransom or, tragically, resorting to violence, exemplified by an incident in 2012 involving European tourists.

Traffic, while generally well-regulated during the day, becomes less predictable at night, especially with truck drivers displaying less adherence to rules. It’s advisable to exercise caution.

Sanitation standards are relatively low in the country. Consuming only bottled water, washing fruits thoroughly, and avoiding eating in questionable places is recommended.

Ethiopia faces a higher incidence of tropical infections such as malaria, hepatitis, and yellow fever. Visitors should take necessary precautions.

Despite the absence of beach tourism, sun safety is crucial, as unprepared tourists from northern countries can be susceptible to heatstroke during daylight hours.

Ethiopian nature harbors potential dangers, including lions, crocodiles, rhinoceroses, poisonous snakes, and insects. Caution and avoidance of risky areas contribute to a safe and enjoyable experience in this vibrant and exotic country.


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Despite economic challenges, Ethiopians are known for their joyful spirit and a penchant for celebrations, placing immense importance on both religious and secular festivities.

Secular holidays include Labor Day on May 1, commemorations of Ethiopian patriots’ victories spanning three days, and the Ethiopian New Year on September 11.

The celebration of the Ethiopian New Year, Enkutatash or New Year’s Eve, is intricately linked to the legendary return of the Queen of Sheba after her visit to King Solomon, marked by a warm welcome with flowers and lavish gifts.

Religious celebrations for Christians encompass Christmas, Epiphany, and Easter, while Muslims observe Ramadan, Mavlid, and Kurban Bayram.

Numerous local holidays are observed in specific regions or among various tribes, adding to the diverse tapestry of Ethiopia’s festive calendar.

Fun Things to Do in Ethiopia

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In recent years, Ethiopian authorities have dedicated substantial efforts to revitalize the tourism industry, acknowledging that while the country may not rival its neighbors, Egypt or Kenya, in terms of service quality, it offers a wealth of unique experiences and exotic attractions. Despite the absence of a coastline and luxury resorts, Ethiopia boasts a plethora of distinctive activities for travelers.

Here are 10 popular and amazing activities typical of this country:

1. Addis Ababa: The capital city is a treasure trove of interesting places, museums, and palaces. A highlight for tourists is the lion zoo, providing an opportunity to witness these majestic predators in nearly natural conditions.

2. Markets: Vibrant markets, or bazaars, symbolize both the capital and the nation. Visitors can indulge in a diverse array of items, from local cuisine and spices to whimsical trinkets and handcrafted products.

3. Lalibela: In the north, Lalibela holds sacred significance for Christians. Carved directly into stone, the first Christian churches, dating back to the VII-XIII centuries, captivate with their unique design, predominantly carved from top to bottom.

4. Axum: Another sacred city for Christians, Axum is reputed to house the legendary Ark of the Covenant in the local church of the Virgin Mary. The city is also known for its stelae, magnificent obelisks, contributing to its historical allure.

5. Gondar: Despite a shorter history compared to Axum, Gondar attracts tourists with its stunning medieval castles and fortresses, offering a glimpse into a bygone era.

6. Hiking and Trekking: Ethiopia boasts a plethora of trails, varying in difficulty, with several popular national parks. The National Park of Mount Symen, near Gondar, hosts one of the most picturesque trails, making it a haven for hiking enthusiasts.

7. Volcanoes of Ethiopia: The country is renowned for its low-lying, seemingly harmless active volcanoes, such as Dallol and Erta Ale, providing a surreal and otherworldly landscape that captures the imagination of tourists.

8. Ethnotourism: Ethiopia is home to numerous exotic African tribes, each with a vibrant culture and unique identity, making ethnotourism a fascinating and enriching experience.

9. Safari: A quintessential African adventure, safaris are immensely popular in Ethiopia. Tourists use jeeps to observe wildlife from a safe distance, immersing themselves in the natural wonders of the country.

10. Blue Nile Waterfalls: Located not far from Lake Tana, the Tis Ysat waterfalls complex offers an exhilarating adventure. A stone bridge, dating back to 1626, adds historical charm to the scenic beauty of the surroundings.

Essential Information About Ethiopia for Visitors

  1. Language:

    • The official language is Amharic, spoken by approximately 40 million people.
    • English, Arabic, and Somali are also spoken, and there are over 70 native languages used by local tribes.
  2. Population:

    • Ethiopia is home to just over 122 million people, with a majority residing in rural areas.
    • The country is incredibly diverse, boasting over 100 nationalities and tribes. Notable ethnic groups include the Oromo (16 million), Amhara (15 million), and Tigray (3 million).
    • More interesting facts about Ethiopians, their character and local color can be found in this article.
  3. Currency:

    • The national currency is the Birr, divided into 100 cents.
    • Banknotes range from 1 to 200 Birr, while coins are available in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 25 cents, and 1 Birr.
    • Tourists are advised to carry cash in dollars, which is more easily exchangeable than euros or other currencies. Many establishments accept payment in dollars, and exchanges can be done at airports, banks, hotels, or street vendors. Street rates may be favorable, but be cautious of potential fraud.
    • International payment system cards are rarely accepted.
  4. Exchange Rate:

    • The approximate exchange rate is 1 dollar to 56 Birr.
  5. Religion:

    • 60% of the population practices Orthodox Christianity, with the Ethiopian Orthodox Church being the oldest in the world.
    • 30% of Ethiopians are Muslims, and various tribes continue to follow traditional cults.

When visiting Ethiopia, it’s crucial to respect local customs, be aware of the diverse cultural landscape, and plan accordingly for currency and language differences. Additionally, understanding the predominant religious affiliations can enhance cultural appreciation during your stay.


Ethiopia spans equatorial and subequatorial climatic belts, characterized by a modest fluctuation in the average annual temperature, ranging between +25 and +30 degrees Celsius throughout the year. The country’s elevation on the highlands mitigates extreme heat, with the eastern lowlands experiencing an arid and hot desert climate.

The year in Ethiopia is divided into two seasons: the humid summer from May to September and the dry winter from October to April. The optimal time for visiting is considered to be October-December, with temperatures not exceeding +29 degrees and abundant sunshine for more than 24 days each month.

Natural Disasters

Ethiopia is relatively safe in terms of natural disasters, with droughts being the primary concern. While droughts may lead to forest fires in national parks, they generally pose minimal risk to tourists.

Frequent floods affect southern regions during the summer rainy season, causing river overflow and occasional destruction.

Active volcanoes, though not erupting in the classical sense, are a unique attraction for tourists. Volcanologists suggest the possibility of increased activity in the future.

Earthquakes, albeit infrequent and of low magnitude, occur approximately once every 20 years. Sandstorms are common in the south and east but are comparable in intensity to those in other North African countries.

  • You can read about the most devastating disasters in Ethiopia’s history in this article.

Political Structure

Ethiopia operates as a federal parliamentary republic. Legislative power is vested in a bicameral parliament, and the president, elected for a six-year term, holds executive authority. The leader of the winning parliamentary party becomes the head of the government.

The country is administratively divided into 10 states known as kyllilas, with Addis Ababa serving as the capital.

Largest Cities and Resorts in Ethiopia

  1. Addis Ababa:
    • Capital and Most Populous City
    • Population: Over 5 million people
    • Highlights: Numerous museums, cathedrals, and markets, with Mercato being the largest and most popular.
  2. Dire Dawa:
    • Predominantly Muslim City in the East
    • Population: Just over 600,000 people
    • Features: One of the largest bazaars in Africa. Serves as the starting point for the road to Harer, the main Islamic center of the country and the former capital of the emirate.
  3. Bahr Dar:
    • City on the Shore of Lake Tana
    • Population: 400,000 people
    • Attractions: Gateway to the Blue Nile waterfalls. In the city, tourists can visit the imperial palace and colorful wooden churches.

Symbols of Ethiopia

  • Golden Star: Featured on the coat of arms and flag, the golden star symbolizes the equality and unity of all nationalities within Ethiopia.
  • Coffee: Renowned as the birthplace of the world-famous Ethiopian Arabica coffee, Ethiopia is where the tradition of growing coffee trees originated.
  • Netela: A Netela is a scarf-like Ethiopian shawl worn by both men and women, representing a cultural and traditional garment with unique significance.
  • Jebena: A Jebena is a traditional coffee pot characterized by a spherical base and narrow neck. It holds cultural importance and is an essential element in Ethiopian coffee ceremonies, reflecting the rich coffee culture deeply rooted in Ethiopian traditions.

How to Get to Ethiopia

For tourists from Europe, Asia, America, or Australia, reaching Ethiopia is primarily achieved by air travel. The country boasts three international airports, with Bole Airport in the capital serving as a key entry point. Bole Airport is one of Africa’s major hubs, facilitating connections to numerous cities across Europe, Asia, America, Africa, and even Australia. Ethiopian Airlines, the national carrier, operates the majority of flights, although other carriers also serve the airport. Annually, around 12 million people pass through the airport terminals, highlighting its significance as a major gateway to Ethiopia.

Cost of Vacation in Ethiopia

The cost of a vacation in Ethiopia can vary based on factors such as travel style, use of travel services, and choice of accommodations. Here’s a breakdown of potential expenses:

  1. Flights:
    • Round-trip tickets from Europe to Addis Ababa can cost around 500 euros or less.
  2. Tour Packages:
    • Budget tours start from 500 to 1000 dollars for a 7-day itinerary, excluding flights, making Ethiopia appealing for budget travelers.
  3. In-Country Expenses:
    • Food:
      • Lunch at an average restaurant: $20-25 for two people.
      • Local snack bar: $4.
      • Cheeseburger: $1.2, Cappuccino: ~$0.70.
    • Accommodation:
      • Double room in a three-star hotel: $35-40.
      • Hostel: Starting from $10.
      • Comfortable hotels with rooms starting at $110.
    • Sightseeing:
      • Entrance fees to museums may apply.
      • Themed tours: $1,500 to $3,000. For example, a 9-day sightseeing tour costs $2,500.
    • Souvenirs:
      • Prices for souvenirs such as clay products, masks, baskets, leather carpets, icons, and stone jewelry can vary.
      • Food products like coffee are inexpensive, around $2 per kilogram.
    • Transportation:
      • Public transport (buses, shuttle buses): $0.15 to $0.50 per ticket.
      • Taxi: Initial boarding fee of $1.2 and around $0.40 per kilometer.
  4. Overall Budget:
    • Considering unforeseen expenses, a 7-day vacation for two, including flights, may cost between $1,000 and $2,500.


If you’ve visited Ethiopia, please share your impressions and recommendations in the comments. Share what you enjoyed most, memorable moments, and any suggestions for other travelers. Your insights would be highly appreciated!

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