Indonesia stands as an archipelagic nation in Southeast Asia, strategically positioned along the equator. This diverse country epitomizes the essence of the region, boasting an abundance of natural wonders, historical landmarks, and distinctive cultural practices. Explore the pristine beaches and expansive jungles, delve into the depths of the ocean, and marvel at towering volcanoes. The people of Indonesia, known for their unique way of life, are characterized by their openness, friendliness, and independence. Welcome to Indonesia, a nation eagerly anticipating your exploration!

Indonesia on the Map

Indonesia on the map

Geographical Overview of Indonesia

Situated in the southeastern part of Asia, the Republic of Indonesia comprises an extensive archipelago, acting as a connecting link between the Eurasian mainland and Australia. The equator traverses key islands such as Sumatra, Kalimantan, and Sulawesi, placing the majority of the archipelago in the Southern Hemisphere.

Despite its island-centric composition, Indonesia ranks among the world’s largest countries, boasting an expansive land area of nearly 2 million square kilometers. This impressive size positions the republic at 15th place globally.

Comprising a staggering 17,500 islands, only 6,000 of them are inhabited. The country’s coastline stretches over 54,000 kilometers, making it the second-longest globally, surpassed only by Canada.

Indonesia lays claim to three of the world’s largest islands: Sumatra (6th largest), Kalimantan (3rd largest, shared with Malaysia), and New Guinea (2nd largest, shared with Papua). These islands are washed by the waters of both the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.

Remarkably, despite its archipelagic nature, Indonesia shares land borders with three countries: Papua New Guinea, Malaysia, and East Timor.

The Indonesian islands exhibit significant elevation, with Mount Jaya on New Guinea standing as the archipelago’s highest point at 4,884 meters. Many of the region’s mountains are volcanic in nature.

The country features a myriad of rivers, although they tend to be relatively short. The longest river, Kapuas in Kalimantan, spans 1,040 kilometers.

Enveloped in dense equatorial vegetation, Indonesia’s islands showcase an unparalleled variety of flora and fauna. The region remains home to wild elephants and rhinos, contributing to its rich biodiversity.

Safety for Tourists

In the global index of peacefulness, where factors like the overall calmness of the environment and the attitude towards tourists are considered, Indonesia holds the 57th place, similar to Serbia and the UK. This ranking indicates a relatively high level of safety for travelers in Indonesia.

Crime: The overall crime rate in the country is quite low, with pickpocketing and scams being the most prevalent issues, as is common in many tourist destinations.

Religious Conflicts: While frequent religious conflicts between Muslims and Christians can be a security concern, it’s noteworthy that these conflicts are more typical for Java than for Bali, which is a major global tourist center.

Traffic: Indonesia faces challenges in traffic safety, with hectic road conditions and a lax observance of rules, leading to a high ranking in global road deaths.

Health Concerns: The epidemiological situation in the country raises health concerns, including the risk of hepatitis, yellow fever, and tetanus. Although there are no compulsory vaccinations for entering Indonesia, it is advisable to take precautions. Drinking only bottled water and thoroughly washing fruits are recommended practices. Adhering to simple rules of personal hygiene is essential for a comfortable vacation.

Natural Dangers:

  • The hot equatorial sun and high humidity can pose dangers for unprepared tourists.
  • In the sea, there are often sharp pieces of coral, as well as poisonous fish, octopuses, and jellyfish.
  • The wild is home to many snakes, insects, and spiders. Tigers are endangered, surviving only in Sumatra, and Komodo Island is known for the Komodo dragon, a large predatory lizard.

While Indonesia is a popular and beautiful destination, tourists are advised to stay informed about local safety guidelines, exercise caution, and take necessary precautions to ensure a secure and enjoyable stay.

Holidays in Indonesia

  • Праздники 1 Ньепи на Бали

The people of Indonesia are known for their cheerful and festive spirit, actively celebrating a total of 16 holidays at the state level. These holidays can be categorized into secular and religious festivities.

Secular Holidays:

  1. Independence Day: Celebrating the nation’s independence.
  2. Day of Silence: A unique day dedicated to self-reflection, marked by silence and stillness.
  3. Labor Day: Honoring workers and their contributions.
  4. Pancasila Day: Commemorating the national philosophy.
  5. European New Year: A secular celebration marking the start of the new year.

Religious Holidays:

  1. Muslim Holidays: Including the Prophet’s birthday, Eid al-Adha, Islamic New Year, and others.
  2. Christian Holidays: Celebrations such as Christmas and Easter.
  3. Buddhist Holidays: Including the Buddhist New Year and Buddha’s birthday.

Apart from official holidays, Indonesia hosts numerous cultural, musical, and ethnic festivals throughout the year, providing additional opportunities for tourists to experience the rich diversity and vibrant traditions of the country.

Fun Activities in Indonesia

  • Развлечения 1 пляж Дримленд

Tourism in Indonesia is a thriving sector, attracting over 8 million visitors with its diverse offerings. From stunning beaches and dense jungles to historical monuments and unique cultural traditions, Indonesia has everything for a memorable vacation.

Here are 10 attractive activities for which you should consider visiting Indonesia:

1. Beach Vacations: Bali, known as the tourist heart of Indonesia, offers luxurious hotels and beautiful beaches, including Sanur and Dreamland.

2. Diving: Bali is a paradise for diving and snorkeling enthusiasts, with rich coral reefs, exotic fish, and underwater sculptures on the Jemeluk reef.

3. Surfing: Bali’s surfing season lasts year-round, with top spots like the southern Bukit Peninsula, Kuta Beach, and Padang Padang Beach for professionals.

4. Climbing Volcanoes: Indonesia boasts stunning and active volcanoes like Bromo, Batur, and Ijen, offering exciting trekking experiences.

5. Monkey Forest: In Ubud, Bali, visitors can explore picturesque rice fields, visit the Monkey Forest, and engage in meditation and spiritual practices.

6. Elephant Safari: Bali’s Elephant Park provides opportunities for elephant rides, entertaining shows, and additional attractions like a water park and paragliding.

7. Rafting: Bali’s mountain rivers, especially the Ayung River, provide excellent rafting experiences, with other great spots in Kalimantan and across Indonesia.

8. Borobudur: A must-visit is the Borobudur temple in Java, one of the largest Buddhist temples globally, showcasing eight levels representing stages of nirvana.

9. Komodo Island: Home to the endemic Komodo dragon, Komodo Island is a national park offering scuba diving opportunities to encounter manta rays and other marine life.

10. Ethno-Tourism: Immerse yourself in the exotic traditions of Indonesia’s diverse peoples, whether it’s the indigenous Balinese, the Dayaks in Kalimantan, or the Papuans in New Guinea. Jakarta’s Mini-Indonesia Park showcases the culture of various archipelago communities.

Indonesia provides a range of activities for every traveler, making it a top destination for those seeking adventure, cultural exploration, and relaxation.

Important Information about Indonesia

If you are planning to visit this country, here are some key things to know:


The official language of the country is Indonesian, spoken by nearly 100% of the population. However, in everyday life, many people prefer to communicate in their native languages.

Indonesia is linguistically diverse, with more than 700 languages spoken, including 270 belonging to the Papuan languages.


Indonesia currently has a population of just over 270 million people, ranking it as the fourth-largest country in the world by population.

The population distribution is highly uneven, with half of the country’s inhabitants residing on the island of Java, making it one of the most densely populated islands globally.

Indonesia is a multinational state, home to representatives of more than 300 ethnic groups. The most numerous among them include the Javanese, Sundanese, Madurians, and Papuans.

  • More interesting facts about Indonesians, their character and local color you can learn from this article.


The national currency of Indonesia is the Indonesian rupiah, divided into 100 sen. However, sen has not been used as a monetary unit for over 50 years, although it has not been officially abolished.

Banknotes in circulation include denominations of 1000, 2000, 5000, 10,000, 20,000, 50,000, and 100,000 rupiahs. Additionally, there are coins in values of 1, 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1000 rupiahs.

For the convenience of tourists, carrying cash in US dollars in denominations of 50 and 100 is recommended. Foreign currency is generally not accepted in the country, and while some travel agencies may take dollars, the exchange rate might be unfavorable.

Currency exchange can be done at airport and bank exchange offices. It is advisable to avoid street money changers, as they may charge high commissions without prior notice.

The approximate exchange rate is 1 US dollar for 15,500-16,000 rupiahs.


  • Indonesia is officially a secular state, but the majority of the population adheres to Islam, constituting 88% of the total. This makes Indonesia the largest Islamic state globally.
  • A little over 8% of the population follows Christianity, with a higher percentage being Protestant rather than Catholic.
  • Approximately 2% of the population practices Hinduism, primarily concentrated on the island of Bali.
  • Some residents of the outlying islands continue to observe indigenous pagan ancestral cults.


Indonesia’s territory is situated in the equatorial climate zone, characterized by one of the most consistently warm climates on the planet. Both winter and summer temperatures are high, with average annual values ranging from +26 to +28 degrees Celsius. The temperature difference between summer and winter months is minimal.

The local climate exhibits a division into wet and dry seasons, although this is relatively moderate. Unlike tropical countries with arid summers, Indonesia experiences slightly lower precipitation from May to September compared to the period from November to March.

The optimal time for visits to the country is during the summer months from May to August.

Sea Water Temperature in Indonesia

Indonesia, a tropical paradise, boasts sea water temperatures that offer a perennial invitation to swimmers, remaining consistently delightful throughout the year.

  • Winter (December-January): Ranging from +28 to +29 degrees Celsius, the sea water in winter provides a comfortably warm environment for those seeking aquatic enjoyment.
  • Spring (March-May): As the seasons transition to spring, the water temperature increases, offering a range of +29 to +30 degrees Celsius, further enhancing the allure of Indonesia’s coastal waters.
  • Summer (June-July): In the summer months, sea water temperatures maintain their warmth, ranging from +28 to +29 degrees Celsius, ensuring a pleasurable experience for beach enthusiasts and water lovers.
  • Autumn (September-November): Even as autumn arrives, the sea water remains inviting, starting at +29 degrees and gradually cooling to +27 degrees Celsius, providing a comfortable environment for those who choose to explore Indonesia’s coastal wonders during this season.

Whether you plan your visit in winter, spring, summer, or autumn, Indonesia’s coastal waters promise a consistently enjoyable temperature, creating an ideal setting for a refreshing and revitalizing aquatic experience.

Natural Disasters

In the enchanting equatorial paradise of Indonesia, two natural calamities, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions, stand as potential disruptions to vacations, irrespective of the time of year.

Situated within the Pacific Ring of Fire, where the Indo-Australian, Pacific, and Eurasian lithospheric plates converge, Indonesia experiences high tectonic activity. Annually, up to 7,000 earthquakes with a magnitude exceeding 4 are recorded across the islands. While smaller tremors are commonplace and often go unnoticed, the region occasionally witnesses catastrophic seismic events. One such tragic incident occurred on December 26, 2004, when powerful tremors off the coast of Sumatra Island triggered a devastating tsunami, claiming hundreds of thousands of lives across different countries.

Indonesia boasts over 400 volcanoes, with 150 classified as active. Annual eruptions, numbering up to a dozen, contribute to the dynamic landscape. The region has been the site of two of the most potent volcanic eruptions in history: Tambora in 1815, claiming over 90,000 lives, and Krakatoa in 1883, with a death toll exceeding 36,000.

Beyond seismic and volcanic concerns, seasonal natural disasters include floods, landslides, and mudslides. As one of the world’s most moisture-laden countries, Indonesia experiences heavy and prolonged rains, leading to the potential for both floods and landslides. A tragic example is the New Guinea flood in March 2019, resulting in the loss of 113 lives.

While cyclones are infrequent along Indonesia’s shores, travelers, especially those situated in the southernmost or northernmost islands, should remain vigilant. Cyclone Serodja in April 2021, for instance, impacted Timor and resulted in 183 casualties. Understanding and respecting the natural dynamics of Indonesia ensures a safer and more informed travel experience.

  • About the most devastating disasters in the history of Indonesia can be read in this article.

Political Structure

Presidential Republic: Indonesia operates as a presidential republic.
The President serves as the head of the executive branch and is elected for a 5-year term. The president also forms the government.

Legislative Power: The legislative branch is represented by the bicameral People’s Consultative Congress.

Administrative Divisions: Administratively, Indonesia is divided into 34 provinces and two special districts.

Capital: Jakarta serves as the capital of Indonesia.

Indonesia’s Pinnacle Cities and Resorts

Jakarta: As Indonesia’s largest and most populous city, Jakarta stands as a dynamic metropolis with a history dating back to 1527. Home to over 10 million people, it showcases a blend of historical and modern landmarks, including museums, parks, a zoo, a planetarium, and the grand Istiklal Mosque, Southeast Asia’s largest.

Yogyakarta: Yogyakarta, positioned on Java Island, earns the title of Indonesia’s cultural capital. With a modest population of 400 thousand, it thrives as the hub of batik, ballet, drama, and music. Renowned for its architectural marvels, Yogyakarta is in proximity to the famed Merapi volcano and the Borobudur temple.

Bali: Bali, an iconic resort island, particularly flourishes in its southern region, housing the most popular beaches and hotels. With nearly 4 million residents, predominantly adhering to Hindu traditions, Bali attracts around 7 million tourists annually, offering a blend of cultural richness and scenic beauty.

Bintan: Bintan, a small island close to Singapore, emerges as a sought-after tourism center. Renowned for its scenic beauty, pristine beaches, and luxurious hotels, it is easily accessible by ferry from Singapore, providing a tranquil retreat.

Lombok: Located southeast of Bali, Lombok captivates visitors with landscapes akin to its famous neighbor. Boasting beaches and volcanoes, Lombok presents a different cultural experience with a predominantly Muslim population, offering a harmonious blend of nature and heritage.

Symbols of Indonesia

Garuda Bird: The majestic Garuda bird holds a significant place as one of the main symbols of Hinduism. Its presence extends to the national emblem of the republic, embodying spiritual importance and cultural richness.

Banyan Tree: The Banyan tree, a colossal ficus, serves as the national tree of Indonesia, symbolizing the unity and diversity of the nation’s people. This iconic tree stands as a testament to the interconnectedness and richness found within the republic.

Komodo Dragon: The Komodo dragon, an emblematic and exclusive species, stands as one of Indonesia’s most recognizable animals. Found only within the country, this mighty creature symbolizes the biodiversity and distinctiveness of Indonesian wildlife.

Batik: Batik, an extraordinary technique of painting silk fabrics, has earned local craftsmen widespread acclaim. More than a craft, it is a cultural legacy that showcases Indonesia’s creative prowess and artistic finesse, leaving an indelible mark on the global stage.

Gendang: The Gendang, a large drum, proudly holds the title of the national musical instrument. Its resonant beats contribute to the vibrant tapestry of Indonesian music and traditions, symbolizing the rhythmic heartbeat of the nation.

Kris: The Kris, a ceremonial dagger with an asymmetrical blade, stands as a traditional Javanese weapon. Beyond its functional significance, the Kris carries profound cultural and ceremonial importance, reflecting the historical roots and traditions of the Indonesian people.

Traveling to Indonesia

For European or American tourists, the primary mode of reaching Indonesia is by air, given the country’s archipelagic nature. Indonesia boasts 15 international airports, with the largest and busiest being Sukarno-Hatta in the capital. This airport accommodates almost 60 million passengers annually, hosting regular flights from major global carriers, connecting travelers from all corners of the world.

Residents of neighboring Asian countries also have the option to reach Indonesia by sea, with ferry connections available from Singapore and Malaysia.

For tourists with specific destinations like Bali or Lombok in mind, local airports serve as convenient gateways. Ngurah Rai Airport in Denpasar, the capital of Bali, caters to 23 million passengers annually. Meanwhile, Abdullah Majid Airport in Mataram serves as the entry point for Lombok, accommodating around 4 million passengers yearly. Whether arriving at the bustling capital or heading directly to the serene islands, Indonesia’s well-connected transportation network ensures a smooth and accessible journey for travelers.

Cost of Vacation in Indonesia

The expense of a vacation in Indonesia can vary widely, contingent on whether you opt for independent travel or utilize the services of a travel company and guides.

Flight Costs: The flight cost for tourists from the EU can be relatively expensive, with round-trip tickets from Paris to Jakarta starting at around 400 euros in the lowest price segment.

Tour Packages: Inexpensive tour packages to Indonesia, including flights, start from 1500 to 2000 dollars for a 7-day trip. This affordability makes Indonesia an enticing destination even for budget-conscious travelers.

In-Country Costs:

  • Food: Prices for food are slightly lower than in Europe, with lunch at an inexpensive restaurant costing between 16-40 dollars for two people, excluding alcohol. Fast food snacks typically range from 3-4 dollars.
  • Accommodation: A double room in a three-star hotel averages around 40 dollars, while hostels offer rooms starting at 12 dollars. More luxurious hotels can range upwards from 260 dollars.
  • Attractions: Many beaches, historical sites, and temples are free, but admission fees apply to museums and ethnic festivals. Additional beach services, like diving, may cost between 60-80 dollars. Excursion prices vary, with a Bali tour ranging from 50 to 120 dollars and a Java trip with a flight starting from 200 dollars. Specialized tours, such as to the Papuans of New Guinea, can cost around 3000 dollars, including flights.
  • Souvenirs: Costs for souvenirs vary widely. Popular items include local clothing (sarongs from 10 dollars, batik from 20 dollars), silver jewelry (from 15 dollars), wooden dolls and masks, natural cosmetics, and food products like Goji berries and chia seeds. Souvenir costs are individual and can vary greatly.
  • Transportation: Public transport, such as buses and shuttles, is economical, with tickets ranging from 20 to 60 cents. Taxi boarding costs 0.5 dollars, and the average fare is around 0.6 dollars per kilometer.

Taking into account a reserve for unforeseen expenses, a vacation for two in Indonesia for 7 days, including flights, can range from 2000 to 3000 dollars. However, the maximum expenditure for a more indulgent experience can be even higher.


If you have already visited Indonesia, please share your impressions in the comments. Please write a few words, what you liked most of all, what moments remained in your memory forever, and what you would recommend to other tourists. We will be very grateful for your recommendations!

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